Presenter Biographies

Second Annual EnviReform Conference
Hard Choices, Soft Law:
Combining Trade, Environment,
and Social Cohesion in Global Governance

Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington DC
November 8-9, 2001

The EnviReform project is pleased to host its annual conference in conjunction with the Canada Institute at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington DC. The proceedings on Thursday November 8, will be videoconferenced, with excepts from Washington interacting in real time with those gathered in Toronto. Both days of the conference will be webcast live from the Vivian & David Campbell Conference Facility at the Munk Centre for International Studies in Toronto.

Links to Archives of Conference Webcast   |   Registration Information

Susan Aaronson directs globalization issues as a Senior Fellow, International Programs at the National Policy Association. She is a frequent speaker on trade and globalization issues, and has been a regular commentator on radio and television since 1998. Dr. Aaronson's latest book is Taking It to the Streets: The Lost History of Public Efforts to Shape Globalization (University of Michigan Press, forthcoming); widely published, she is also the author of Trade and the American Dream (University Press of Kentucky, 1996). Dr. Aaronson received her doctorate in economic history from Johns Hopkins University and has taught at the University of North Texas, George Washington University, and George Mason University. She was a Guest Scholar in Economics at the Brookings Institution from 1995 to 1998. Session at Conference

Bama Athreya is the Deputy Director for the International Labor Rights Fund, a Washington DC-based nonprofit advocacy organization. She joined the ILRF in early 1998, just after returning from a two-year assignment in Cambodia as the AFL-CIO's Country Representative. While in Cambodia, Dr. Athreya directed worker education and labor law training programs and conducted extensive research on the problems of women workers and on child labor. She is a cultural anthropologist, and received her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. She spent three years in Indonesia, first as a State Department official and later as an independent researcher, and wrote her thesis on Indonesia's labor movement. She has also lived and worked in China, Taiwan, and India.  Session at Conference

Tasso Rezende de Azevedois a forester with the Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz ded Queiroz at the University of São Paulo in Brazil as well as a research assistant for the Forestry Research and Studies Institute (IPEF) at the University of São Paulo and the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Since 1995, Professor Azevedo has served as Executive Director of the Institute for Agricultural and Forestry Management and Certification (Imaflora). He is also, since 1996, a lead assessor for FSC certification and an instructor of the certification training program for programs in Brazil, Guatemala, Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico and India. Professor Azevedo has participated in FSC Working Groups on plantations, non-timber forest products, and high-conservation value forests, among others.  Session at Conference

Sir Nicholas Bayne, KCMG, is a Fellow at the International Trade Policy Unit of the London School of Economics and Political Science. As a British diplomat, he was High Commissioner to Canada from 1992 to 1996, Economic Director at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office from 1988 to 1992, and Ambassador to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development from 1985 to 1988. He has published numerous articles and books, including Hanging In There (Ashgate 2000); he is co-author, with Robert Putnam, of Hanging Together: Cooperation and Conflict in the Seven Power Summits (Harvard University Press 1987) and, with Stephen Woolcock, of Economic Diplomacy (Ashgate, in press). Sir Nicholas also contributed to New Directions in Global Economic Governance: Managing Globalisation in the Twenty-First Century (Ashgate 2001) and New Directions in Global Political Governance: The G8 and International Order in the Twenty-First Century (Ashgate, in press).  Session at Conference

Albert Berry is Professor of Economics at the University of Toronto and Research Director of the Programme on Latin America and the Caribbean at the University's Centre for International Studies. His main research areas, with focus on Latin America, are labour markets and income distribution (with attention to the impacts of the recent economic reforms in Latin America), the economics of small and medium enterprise, and agrarian structure and policy. He has worked with the Ford Foundation, the Colombian Planning Commission, and the World Bank, and acted as consultant for a number of international and other agencies. He recently directed an analysis of economic policy for Pakistan over the next 15 years.  Session at Conference

Adelle Blackett teaches international trade law and labour law at McGill University. Formerly, she was a labour law and labour relations specialist at the International Labour Office in Geneva. She holds a B.A. in History from Queen's University, LL.B. and B.C.L. degrees from McGill University, and an LL.M. from Columbia University, where she is completing her doctorate. Her recent relevant publications include "Defining the Contemporary Role of the State: WTO Treaty Interpretation, Unilateralism and Linkages" in Chi Carmody et al., Trilateral Perspectives on International Law (ASIL, forthcoming 2001), "Global Governance, Legal Pluralism and the Decentered State: A Labor Law Critique of Codes of Corporate Conduct" (2001) Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 8(2): 401, and "Whither Social Clause? Human Rights, Trade Theory and Treaty Interpretation" (1999) Columbia Human Rights Law Review 31:1.  Session at Conference

Robin Broad's research and teaching center on the political economy of international development, with a particular focus on environment and development. She has previously worked as an international economist at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the U.S. Department of Treasury. In recent years, she has received grants from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Association of Asian Studies, and the Council on Foreign Relations. She is co-author of Plundering Paradise: The Struggle for the Environment in the Philippines (University of California Press, 1993), which was runner-up for the 1993 Lionel Gelber Prize for best English-language book in international relations. She is also author of Unequal Alliance: The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Philippines (University of California Press, 1988). Her articles have appeared in Foreign Policy, World Development, World Policy Journal, International Economy, New York Times, and numerous other publications.  Session at Conference

Benjamin Cashore is Assistant Professor of Sustainable Forest Policy and Chair of the Program on Forest Certification at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies in New Haven. He earned his B.A. and M.A. degrees in Political Science from Carleton University, a certificate from Université d'Aix-Marseille III in French Studies, and a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Toronto. He was a Fulbright Scholar at Harvard University during 1996-97. His research interests include globalization and the privatization of environmental governance in the forest sector (forest certification eco-labelling programs); forest resource policies of Canada, the United States and globally; the political economy of U.S./Canada forest products trade; and forest industry environmental/sustainability initiatives. He has held positions as a legislation and policy advisor to leader of the New Democratic Party of Canada (1990-93); research assistant to members of the Canadian Parliament (1987-88); postdoctoral fellow in the Forest Economics and Policy Analysis Research Unit at the University of British Columbia (1997-98) and Assistant Professor in the School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences at Auburn University (1998-2001). Professor Cashore has published articles in Policy Sciences, the Canadian Journal of Political Science, Canadian Public Administration, Canadian-American Public Policy, Forest Policy and Economics, and the Forestry Chronicle. He is also author or co-author of chapters in several edited books published by Oxford University Press, the University of British Columbia Press, CAB International, and Macmillan UK. He is co-author of In Search of Sustainability: The Politics of Forest Policy in British Columbia in the 1990s (with George Hoberg, Michael Howlett, Jeremy Rayner, and Jeremy Wilson) published by University of British Columbia Press in 2001. His new research project is a comparative analysis of forest certification (eco-labelling) politics in policies in North America and Europe.  Session at Conference

Stephen Clarkson followed his graduate studies at Oxford (as a Rhodes scholar) and the Sorbonne (as a Ford Foundation foreign area scholar) with teaching political economy at the University of Toronto. His first research focus, the Soviet model of development, resulted in two books, L'analyse soviétique des problèmes indiens du sous-développement, 1955-64 (Mouton, 1971) and, thanks to a fellowship at Columbia University's Research Institute on Communist Affairs, The Soviet Theory of Development: India and the Third World in Marxist-Leninist Scholarship (University of Toronto Press, 1978 and Macmillan, 1979). While finishing this work, he became increasingly involved in the study of Canadian politics at the level of foreign policy, which led to An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada? (McClelland & Stewart, 1968), and in the political economy of Canada's relationship with the United States. He is author of Canada and the Reagan Challenge: Crisis and Adjustment 1981-85 (Canadian Institute for Economic Policy, 1982; 2nd ed. Lorimer, 1985), which won the John Porter prize. He is also co-author of the two-volume Trudeau and Our Times (McClelland & Stewart, 1990, 1994); volume 1, The Magnificent Obsession, was awarded the 1990 Governor General's prize for non-fiction and volume 2, The Heroic Delusion was granted the John W. Dafoe prize.

Michael Cloghesy is President of the Conseil Patronat de l'environnement du Québec, loosely translated as the Centre for Business and Environmental of Quebec. The CPEQ represents its 150 corporate and sector-based association members at the provincial, national, and international levels. Mr. Cloghesy was a former member of the Joint Public Advisory Committee of the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation and is a member of the Canadian delegation on Climate Change. The CPEQ is one of the social partners of "Strengthening Canada's Environmental Community through International Regime Reform: Exploring Social Cohesion in a Globalizing Era" (the EnviReform project).  Session at Conference

Hugh Corbet is the President of the Cordell Hull Institute. He was previously at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, the Brookings Institution, and George Washington University, all in Washington. Earlier in his career, he was the director of the Trade Policy Research Centre (1968-1989), then based in London, and editor of The World Economy, Oxford and Boston.  Session at Conference

Wesley Cragg is the George R. Gardiner Professor of Business Ethics in York University's Schulich School of Business, where he is responsible for encouraging and coordinating research and curriculum development in business ethics. The focus of his current writing is corporate citizenship, mining and sustainability, ethics and conflict resolution, ethics codes, social and ethics audits, voluntary self regulation, globalization, and bribery and corruption in international commerce. Dr. Cragg has extensive experience in the voluntary sector and is currently the President and Chair of Transparency International Canada.  Session at Conference

Geoffrey Dalbelko is director of the Woodrow Wilson Centre's Environmental Change and Security Project, a non-partisan, non-advocacy information clearinghouse on environment, population, and security issues. Mr. Dabelko has held prior positions at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service, Foreign Policy magazine, and the Council on Foreign Relations. He is co-editor with Ken Conca of Green Planet Blues: Environmental Politics from Stockholm to Kyoto (2nd edition, Westview Press, 1998) and the forthcoming Environmental Peacemaking. Mr. Dabelko holds an M.A. in government and politics at the University of Maryland and an A.B. in political science from Duke University.  Session at Conference

Hevina S. Dashwood teaches in the International Relations Program at the University of Toronto and is a research associate at the Centre for International Studies. Her interests encompass the areas of Canadian foreign policy, Canada's relations with the developing world, peace building, and Canadian corporate responsibility. Her doctoral research in the area of international development resulted in the publication of Zimbabwe: The Political Economy of Transformation (University of Toronto Press 2000). In March 2001, Professor Dashwood was awarded a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council research grant to support her current research on Canadian corporate responsibility. She is the Post-Doctoral Research Fellow for "Strengthening Canada's Environmental Community through International Regime Reform" (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.  Session at Conference

Kimberly Ann Elliott is a research fellow at the Institute for International Economics and an Adjunct Professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies where she teaches a course on international economic negotiations. Much of her work focuses on the use of economic leverage in international negotiations, including economic sanctions for foreign policy goals as well as trade threats and sanctions in commercial disputes. Professor Elliott has co-authored two books on the costs of trade barriers in the United States and, in recent years, has turned to less traditional trade issues, including the causes and consequences of transnational corruption and international labor standards. Her publications for the Institute for International Economics include International Labor Standards: Protectionism or Social Justice? (forthcoming), Corruption and the Global Economy (1997), Reciprocity and Retaliation in U.S. Trade Policy (1994), and Measuring the Costs of Protection in the United States (1994). She has published in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Current History, the Harvard International Review, and World Economy, as well as the Journal of Commerce, Washington Post, and the New York Times. She has testified before Congress regarding sanctions in general and in particular against Cuba, and has also served as an adviser to various groups and task forces studying economic sanctions and other trade policy issues, including the Council on Foreign Relations (on sanctions and labor standards), the Carnegie Commission Task Force on Preventing Deadly Conflict, and the Carter Center.  Session at Conference

John W. Foster has been Principal Researcher, Civil Society, for the North-South Institute since 2000. From 1997 to 1999, he was the Ariel F. Sallows Professor of International Human Rights at the College of Law at the University of Saskatchewan. He has been a visiting scholar at the Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies at the University of California in San Diego and La Jolla. He has served as national secretary for OXFAM-Canada from 1989 to 1996, as well as Program Officer for Social and Economic Justice for the Division of Mission of the United Church of Canada. Dr. Foster has a long career in the voluntary sector in Canada as an agency executive, program staff officer, board member and volunteer. He currently chairs the International Coordinating Committee of the Social Watch, is vice-chair of the Canadian Consortium for International Social Development, and a member of the Board of Greenpeace Canada and of Common Frontiers. He is formerly an executive member of the Canadian Council for International Cooperation, and former chair or board member of several ecumenical coalitions, including the Task Force on the Churches and Corporate Responsibility, with which he was involved from its founding in the early 1970s. Dr. Foster has written extensively on issues of social justice, human rights, international relations, and civil society. He has edited three books, the most recent of which is Whose World Is It Anyway? Civil Society, the United Nations and the Multilateral Future (United Nations in Canada 1999). He is currently supervising the VOICES project of the North-South Institute, which focuses on the relations between civil society organizations and major multilateral bodies. Dr. Foster is a graduate of the University of Saskatchewan and the University of Toronto (Ph.D., History).  Session at Conference

Ross W. Gorte is a senior policy analyst in the Natural Resources Section of the Science, Resources, and Industry Division of the Congressional Research Service (CRS) in Washington DC, and served as section head from 1992-1999. He joined CRS as an analyst in 1983. He has authored or co-authored more than 100 articles, reports for Congress, and significant memoranda for members of Congress, as well as testifying before congressional committees several times on these issues. Dr. Gorte has a B.Sc. in Forest Management and a M.B.A. from Northern Arizona University, and a Ph.D. in forest economics from Michigan State University. Before joining CRS in 1983, he worked as an economist for the National Forest Products Association in Washington DC, and was also a lecturer in business administration at Trinity College in Washington DC.  Session at Conference

George Hoberg is Professor and Head of the Department of Forest Resources Management at the University of British Columbia. He received his B.S. from the University of California at Berkeley and his Ph.D. in political Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He studies public policy, both Canadian and comparative, and taught American politics at the University of British Columbia for 13 years before joining the Faculty of Forestry. His current research interests include comparative forest policy, theories of policy change, the role of knowledge in the policy process, and international constraints on domestic policy autonomy. He is the author of Pluralism by Design (Praeger 1992), co-author of Risk, Science, and Politics (McGill-Queen's University Press 1994) and In Search of Sustainability: British Columbia Forest Policy in the 1990s (University of British Columbia Press 2001), and co-editor of Degrees of Freedom: Canada and the United States in a Changing World (McGill-Queen's University Press 1997). Professor Hoberg has also published recent articles on the softwood lumber agreement, the Species at Risk Act, trade and the environment, and U.S. forest policy. He was team leader of the Policy Research Secretariat's Trends team on North American integration. The book resulting from that project, Capacity for Choice: Canada in a New North America, is due out later this year. His current research focus is on forest certification, First Nations, and forest policy design.  Session at Conference

The Honourable Thomas A. Hockin P.C., has been President and Chief Executive Officer of The Investment Funds Institute of Canada (IFIC) since March 1994. IFIC represents mutual fund managers and retail distributors of mutual funds in Canada. Mr. Hockin, a Privy Councilor, was a federal Cabinet minister for eight years and member of Parliament for nine years. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in Business from the University of Western Ontario, and a Master of Public Administration and doctorate in government from Harvard University. He is perhaps best known to the Canadian financial services industry for his role in the restructuring of federal financial institutions in 1986-88 when he was Minister of State for Finance and for completing the NAFTA negotiations and Quadrilateral final meetings leading to the GATT/WTO while Minister of International Trade in 1993. Before that, Mr. Hockin was chief executive officer of three Canadian businesses, including Sotheby's, and a professor at the University of Western Ontario's Business School.  Session at Conference

John Kirton is an Associate Professor of Political Science, a Fellow of Trinity College, a Research Associate of the Centre for International Studies, Principal Investigator of the EnviReform Project, and Director of the G8 Research Group at the University of Toronto. He has co-edited Linking Trade, Environment and Social Cohesion: NAFTA Experiences, Global Challenges (Ashgate, forthcoming) and co-authored Environmental Regulations and Corporate Competitiveness: A NAFTA Perspective (Oxford University Press, 1999), NAFTA's Environmental Institutions: Performance and Potential (Commission for Environmental Cooperation, 1997), and Building a Framework for Assessing NAFTA Effects (Commission for Environmental Cooperation, 1996). His 20 books include Trade and Environment: Legal, Economic and Policy Perspectives (Edward Elgar, 1998), Trade, Environment and Competitiveness: Sustaining Canada's Prosperity (National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy [NRTEE], 1992, 1993), The Halifax Summit, Sustainable Development, and International Institutional Reform (NRTEE, 1995), and The International Joint Commission Seventy Years On (Centre for International Studies, 1982). Dr. Kirton has served as founding Chair of the North American Environmental Standards Working Group, team leader of the Commission on Environmental Cooperation's project on NAFTA's environmental effects (1995-99), a member of the Foreign Policy Committee of the Canadian Prime Minister's National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (1989-95), and a member of the Government of Canada's International Trade Advisory Committee (1995-97).  Sessions at Conference: Opening Remarks and Session 5 Chair.

Vernon MacKay is a senior policy analyst with the Investment Trade Policy Division of Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. He joined the Department in August 1998. Prior to that he was with the Canadian International Development Agency, where he worked for ten years as a development analyst both at headquarters and posted overseas. Mr. MacKay's work in the past three years has focussed on the international aspects of a policy to promote corporate social responsibility. He was Canada's lead delegate on the review of the Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, a non-binding instrument of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Following the completion of the review in June 2000, he has devoted much of his time to preparing the Government of Canada for implementation of its obligations under the revised Guidelines. He has also been closely involved with Canada's efforts to initiate a dialogue on corporate social responsibility in the Americas.  Session at Conference

The Honourable Roy MacLaren, P.C., has led a distinguished career in the Canadian foreign service, business, and Parliament. Mr. MacLaren began his career with the Department of External Affairs, where he was posted to, among others, the Economic Division in Ottawa and the United Nations in Geneva and New York. From 1996 to 2000 he served as High Commissioner for Canada to the United Kingdom. Mr. MacLaren first joined government as a Member of Parliament in 1979. His portfolios in government have included Minister of State for Finance (1983), National Revenue (1984) and, most recently, Minister of International Trade (1993-1996). In business, Mr. MacLaren served most recently as President and Publisher of CB Media Inc., as well as Director of the London Insurance Group Inc., Royal LePage Ltd., and Deutshe Bank (Canada) Ltd. He currently serves as Chair of the Canadian Institute of International Affairs. Mr. MacLaren is the author of five books, including Canadians on the Nile 1882-1898 (University of British Columbia Press, 1978) and Honourable Mentions: The Uncommon Diary of an MP (Deneau Publishing, 1986).  Session at Conference

Robert O. Matthews is a Professor of Political Science at the University of Toronto, specializing in the study of civil wars in Africa (with particular interest in the Sudanese civil war) and the rebuilding of war-torn societies after the end of violent conflict. His most recent book is Civil Wars in Africa: Roots and Resolution (McGill-Queen's Unversity Press, 1999), co-edited with Taisier Ali.  Session at Conference

Lisa Mills has a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Toronto. She is currently Assistant Professor in School of Public Policy and Administration at Carleton University. Her book, Science and Social Context: The Regulation of Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone (rbGH) in the United States and Canada, is in press at McGill-Queen's University Press.  Session at Conference

Sylvia Ostry is Distinguished Research Fellow, Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto. She has a Ph.D. in economics from McGill University and Cambridge. After teaching and research at a number of Canadian universities and at the University of Oxford Institute of Statistics she joined the Federal Government in 1964. Among the posts she held were Deputy Minister of International Trade, Ambassador for Multilateral Trade Negotiations, and the Prime Minister's Personal Representative for the Economic Summit. From 1979 to 1983 she was Head of the Economics and Statistics Department of the OECD in Paris. In December, 1990 she was made a Companion of the Order of Canada, and in 1991 she was admitted as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. Widely published, she is the author of The Post-Cold War Trading System: Who's On First? (University of Chicago Press, 1997) and contributed "Convergence and Sovereignty: Policy Scope for Compromise?" to Coping with Globalization, edited by Aseem Prakash and Jeffrey A. Hart (Routledge, 2000). Dr. Ostry is a co-investigator in "Strengthening Canada's Environmental Community through International Regime Reform" (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.

Louis Pauly is Professor of Political Science and Director of the Centre for International Studies at the University of Toronto. A graduate of Cornell University, the London School of Economics, New York University, and Fordham University, he has held management positions in the Royal Bank of Canada and served on the staff of the International Monetary Fund. His publications include Democracy beyond the State? The European Dilemma and the Emerging Global Order (Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), The Myth of the Global Corporation (Princeton University Press, 1998), Who Elected the Bankers? Surveillance and Control in the World Economy (Cornell University Press, 1997), Choosing to Co-operate: How States Avoid Loss (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993), Opening Financial Markets: Banking Politics on the Pacific Rim (Cornell University Press, 1988), and more than 40 journal articles and book chapters. A current research project focuses on the political and social underpinnings of international economic organizations. Another explores corporate restructuring in high-technology industries in East Asia. He is a co-investigator in "Strengthening Canada's Environmental Community through International Regime Reform" (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.  Sessions at Conference: Opening Remarks and Session 3 Chair.

C. S. Venkata Ratnam is former Dean and currently Professor at the International Management Institute in New Delhi, India. He has been visiting professor at the International Institute of Management at the University of Graz, Austria, and consultant to several corporations and international organizations such as International Labour Organization, the Asian Productivity Council, the Asian Development Bank and the Asia-Pacific Regional Office of International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. Author of several papers and books, Dr. Ratnam has worked with 11 national trade union centres in four Asian countries to develop and offer training materials on applying management principles in trade union work. He is also a member of the executive committees of several national employers organisations and a member of the study group on the impact of globalization set up by the Second National Commission on Labour, Government of India.  Session at Conference

Alan Rugman holds the L. Leslie Waters Chair in International Business at the Kelly School of Business at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, and is Thames Water Fellow in Strategic Management at Templeton College at the University of Oxford. Author of The End of Globalization (McGraw-Hill Ryerson 2001), he has published widely, including "From Globalisation to Regionalism: The Foreign Direct Investment Dimension of International Finance" in Shaping a New International Financial System: Challenges of Governance in a Globalising World, edited by Karl Kaiser, John Kirton, and Joseph Daniels (Ashgate, 2000). He is a Research Collaborator in "Strengthening Canada's Environmental Community through International Regime Reform" (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.  Session at Conference

Leslie Simon is a Senior Policy Scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and a member of the U.S. State Department Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy. For the past few decades, he has had a front-row seat at the global debate over high technology policies. As IBM Europe/Middle East/Africa vice-president for external affairs in Paris, and IBM director of public affairs in Washington D.C. for more than two decades, he directed high technology industry lobbying activities in Washington, Brussels, Tokyo, and other capitals. He also served as chair of the Global Electronic Commerce Committee of the Information Technology Industry Council and co-chair of the International Information Industry Congress, and as a private sector advisor on high technology issues to the U.S. Trade Representative and the U.S. Commerce Department. Simon participated in the Geneva World Trade Organization negotiations on the Global Agreement on Basic Telecommunications, representing industry views to numerous governments and lining up congressional support in Washington. He has lectured at the National Defense University and provided testimony to the International Trade Commission and the Federal Communications Commission. At the Wilson Center, Simon is co-chair of the Sovereignty in the Digital Age program.  Session at Conference

James Stanford is an economist in the Research Department of the Canadian Auto Workers, Canada's largest private-sector trade union. He was a Research Fellow in Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution in Washington DC in 1992-93 and has received numerous other academic fellowships and awards. Dr. Stanford's research on a wide range of economic topics has been published by the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Cambridge University Press, and New York University Press. He is the author of Paper Boom (Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Lorimer 1999). Dr. Stanford earned a B.A. (Hons.) in Economics from the University of Calgary in 1984, an M.Phil. in Economics from Cambridge University in 1986, and a Ph.D. in Economics in 1995 from the New School for Social Research in New York, specializing in international trade, macroeconomics, and the economic impact of labour and social institutions. The Canadian Auto Workers is a partner institution of the "Strengthening Canada's Environmental Community through International Regime Reform" (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.

Christopher Tollefson was the founding Executive Director of the University of Victoria's Environmental Law Centre and has served in this capacity since 1995. He has served on the boards of a variety of public interest environmental organizations, including Sierra Legal Defence Fund (including three years as Board Chair) and the Environmental-Aboriginal Guardianship through Law and Education. He has also consulted to the Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, and has served on the Contaminated Sites Implementation Committee. Currently, he is a member of the National Advisory Committee to the federal and provincial governments with respect to the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation and a fellow of Leadership through Education and Development International (LEAD). He has written on air, land, and water protection and remediation issues, First Nations and the environment, and forest management. His publications include two books - The Wealth of Forests: Markets, Regulation and Sustainable Forestry (University of British Columbia Press 1998) and a citizen's action guide (Sierra Legal Defence Fund 2000) - as well as articles that have appeared in the Osgoode Hall Law Journal, Queen's Law Journal, UBC Law Review, the Canadian Bar Review, the Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Environmental Liability, The Advocate, Yale Journal of International Law, and the Minnesota Journal of Global Trade. He is also a contributor to Linking Trade, Environment, and Social Cohesion: NAFTA Experiences, Global Challenges, edited by John Kirton and Virginia Maclaren (Ashgate, in press). Professor Tollefson clerked in the British Columbia Court of Appeal, was called to Bar of in 1987, and joined the Faculty of Law in 1991. He is a member of "Strengthening Canada's Environmental Community through International Regime Reform: Exploring Social Cohesion in a Globalizing Era," the EnviReform research project.  Session at Conference

Michael Trebilcock is Professor of Law at the University of Toronto. Called to the Bar of New Zealand in 1964 and the Bar of Ontario in 1975, he taught at the University of Adelaide, South Australia, until 1969 when he came to Canada to teach at McGill Law School. He joined the Faculty of Law at the University of Toronto in 1972. He was a Fellow in Law and Economics at the University of Chicago Law School in 1976, a Visiting Professor of Law at Yale Law School in 1985, and a Global Law Professor at New York University Law School in 1997 and 1999. From 1982 to 1986 he was a member of the Research Council of the Canadian Institute of Advanced Research. In 1987 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and was appointed a University Professor in 1990. He was awarded the Owen Prize in 1989 by the Foundation for Legal Research for his book, The Common Law of Restraint of Trade (Carswell, 1986), which was chosen as the best law book in English published in Canada in the previous two years. He has since written The Limits of Freedom of Contract (Harvard University Press, 1993) and co-authored The Regulation of International Trade; Exploring the Domain of Accident Law: Taking the Facts Seriously, second edition (Routledge, 1999) and The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy (University of Toronto Press, 1998). Professor Trebilcock specializes in Law and Economics, International Trade and Contract and Commercial Law. He serves as Director of the Law and Economics Programme and Director of the Centre for the Study of State and Market. In 1999, Professor Trebilcock was awarded the Canada Council Molson Prize in the Humanities and Social Sciences, and received an Honorary Doctorate in Laws from McGill University. He is a co-investigator in "Strengthening Canada's Environmental Community through International Regime Reform" (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.  Session at Conference

Steven M. Tullberg is an attorney and the Director of the Washington DC office of the Indian Law Resource Center. He was one of the founding attorneys of the Center, a non-profit indigenous rights law office established in 1978. Mr. Tullberg graduated from Columbia Law School in 1970. Before working in the field of Indian law, he worked for the New York Civil Liberties Union, a legal services office in upstate New York, and the Public Defenders Service of Washington DC. For the past 24 years, Mr. Tullberg has represented American Indians and other indigenous peoples in United States courts and in international human rights bodies of the United Nations and the Organization of American States. Most recently, he was one of the attorneys for the indigenous petitioners in the case of The Mayagna (Sumo) Community of Awas Tingni v. Nicaragua, in which the Inter-American Court of Human Rights handed down a precedent-setting decision (August 31, 2001,, holding that the American Convention on Human Rights obligates state governments to recognize and guarantee the property right of indigenous communities to their traditional lands and resources.  Session at Conference

Leah F. Vosko is Canada Research Chair in Feminist Political Economy at the School of Social Sciences in the Joseph E. Atkinson Faculty of Liberal and Professional Studies at York University. Her publications have appeared in journals such as Relations Industrielles, Economic and Industrial Democracy and the Comparative Labor Law and Policy Journal. She is also author of Temporary Work: The Gendered Rise of a Precarious Employment Relationship (University of Toronto Press, 2000).  Session at Conference

Christopher Wilkie is Senior Policy Analyst on international investment and services issues at Industry Canada in Ottawa. He has a B.A. from Queen's University, an M.Sc.(Econ.) from the London School of Economics and Political Science, and a D.Phil. from the University of Oxford. In addition to working for the Canadian government, Dr. Wilkie worked for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development from 1998 until September 2001, where among other duties he served as Secretary to the Working Party on the OECD Guidelines on Multinational Enterprises during the period of the successful review of this instrument. He is also a Research Fellow of PRIME (Program of Research in International Management and Economy) in the Faculty of Administration at the University of Ottawa.  Session at Conference

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