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Conference Biographies

Gustavo Alanís Ortega | Carl Amrhein | David Barling | David Buckeridge | Stephen Clarkson | William Dymond

Tara-Lynne Franco | Harriet Friedmann | Sanford Gaines | David Hathaway | Robert Howse | Pierre Marc Johnson

Noel Keough | John Kirton | Marc Levine | Virginia Maclaren | Howard Mann | Konrad von Moltke

Sylvia Ostry | Louis Pauly | Sarah Richardson | Alan Rugman | Grace Skogstad | Julie Soloway

James Stanford | Michelle Swenarchuk | Chris Tollefson | Michael Trebilcock | Scott Vaughan | Peter Warrian

David Welch | Rodney White | Serena Wilson

Gustavo Alanís Ortega

Professor Gustavo Alanís Ortega, a professor of Environmental Law at the Universidad Iberoamericana in Mexico City, has been the president of the Mexican Environmental Law Center for the past eight years. In addition, he is Academic Coordinator of the Diploma on Environmental Law and Policy at the Universidad Iberoamericana, President of the InterAmerican Association for the Protection of the Environment (AIDA), a Fellow of Leadership on Environment and Development (LEAD), Cohort 7, as well as a columnist for the Reforma newspaper in Mexico City, where he writes about environmental law and environmental education. Professor Alanís received his LL.B. from the Iberoamericana University in Mexico City and holds an LL.M. in International Law from the American University, Washington College of Law, in Washington, D.C. LEAD is a partner institution of the “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


Carl Amrhein

Professor Carl Amrhein has been dean of the Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, since November 1997. Previously, he was chair of the university’s Department of Geography and the graduate program in planning, a position he held since 1993. He was admitted as a full member to the Canadian Institute of Planning and the Ontario Professional Planning Institute in 1997. A prolific author and well-respected scholar, Dean Amrhein’s research concentrates on urban environmental health and spatial statistics, with a predominant focus on the quality of data. He has just completed two terms as chair of the board of directors of the Joint Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Settlement and was one of the leaders of the centre’s Metropolis Project, which is examining issues of immigration and settlement in urban areas. Dean Amrhein was a principal investigator on a recently completed two-year National Health Research and Development program grant to examine issues related to urban environmental health. Most recently, he and a colleague have begun work jointly with the Université Laval to support the work of the Canadian Foundation for Innovation on geographic information systems. Dean Amrhein received his B.Sc. from Pennsylvania State University in 1978 and his Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1984.


David Barling

Dr. David Barling is a Senior Lecturer at the Centre for Food Policy at Thames Valley University in London, where he co-ordinates the Masters Programme in Food Policy. David¹s research focuses on food governance. For the past decade this has included the regulation of GM food and food crops, and he has published in a number of journals including: European Environment, Environmental Politics, European Journal of Public Health and Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. He has recently authored a chapter "Regulating GM Foods in the 1980s and 1990s" in David Smith and Jim Phillips eds. (2000) Food, Science and Regulation in the twentieth century, London: Routledge. He was also a co-author of a recent report for the European Parliament assessing the proposal for a new European Food Authority.


David Buckeridge

Dr. David Buckeridge, FRCP(C), is a Research Associate with HEALNet (Health Evidence Application and Linkage Network) and a member of the Canadian Network of Centers of Excellence. His research focuses on public health informatics, that is, the collection, storage, retrieval, analysis and dissemination of data and information relevant to the health of communities. He has a particular interest in health surveillance systems, geographical and environmental epidemiology, and human and organizational factors related to community health systems. He received his B.Sc. and M.D. from Queen’s University, and his M.Sc. in Epidemiology from the University of Toronto. In January 2001, Dr. Buckeridge entered the PhD program in medical informatics at Stanford University.


Stephen Clarkson

A professor of political economy at the University of Toronto, Professor Stephen Clarkson completed his graduate studies at Oxford (as a Rhodes scholar) and the Sorbonne (as a Ford Foundation foreign area scholar). His research of the Soviet model of development led him to study Canadian politics at the levels of foreign policy and party politics, and also to consider the political economy of Canada’s relationship with the United States. In 1995–96 Professor Clarkson was a Jean Monnet fellow at the European University Institute near Florence where he studied the European Union’s alternative to NAFTA as a model of continental integration. His most recent work has been on the impact of globalization and continentalization on the Canadian state, about which he has developed the thesis that the World Trade Organization and NAFTA are such legally intrusive regimes that they should be considered an external part of Canada’s constitutional order. As a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson Center, he is now extending this argument to the U.S. and Mexico. An award-winning author, Professor Clarkson has written Canada and the Reagan Challenge: Crisis and Adjustment 1981–85 (2nd edition, Lorimer, 1985) and, with Christina McCall, Trudeau and Our Times. Volume 1: The Magnificent Obsession (McClelland and Stewart, 1990) and Trudeau and Our Times. Volume 2: The Heroic Delusion (McClelland and Stewart, 1994). Professor Clarkson is co-investigator in “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


William Dymond

Mr. William A. Dymond, Executive Director of the Centre for Trade Policy and Law at Carleton University, has extensive experience in trade negotiation and policy. Formerly the Director-General of the Policy Planning Secretariat of Canada’s Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, he has also served as Senior Advisor to the Trade Negotiations Office for the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, Chief Negotiator for Canada for the OECD Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI), and Chief Air Negotiator for Canada. His overseas assignments include Ambassador of Canada to Brazil, Deputy Head and Minister Counsellor for the Permanent Mission of Canada to the European Communities in Brussels, and Minister Counsellor (Commercial) at the Embassy of Canada to the United States in Washington, D.C. Mr. Dymond’s publications include “The MAI: A Sad and Melancholy Tale,” in A Big League Player? Canada Among Nations (Oxford University Press, 1999); co-author of Decision at Midnight (University of British Colombia Press, 1994); “Sisyphus Ascendant? Brazil and the 21st Century,” in Canadian Foreign Policy (1997); “Globalization and the Negotiation of International Investment Rules in a post-MAI World,” in Canadian Foreign Policy (Winter 2000); and “Post-Modern Trade Policy: Reflections on the Challenges to Multilateral Trade Negotiations after Seattle,” in Journal of World Trade (June 2000). Mr. Dymond is a graduate of the University of Toronto, having received his B.A. in 1966 and his M.A. in 1967.


Tara-Lynne Franco

Ms. Tara-Lynne Franco is the Coordinator for VISION 2020, the Sustainable Community Initiative for the Hamilton-Wentworth region of Ontario. She has assisted in the coordination of various VISION 2020 programs and initiatives since she began working for the region in 1997 and played a key role in the continuation of the Sustainable Community Recognition Awards Program and the Sustainability Indicators Program. She has also participated in the development of an interactive community mobile exhibit for VISION 2020. Ms. Franco is a 1996 graduate of the University of Waterloo’s Urban and Regional Planning Program in Honours Co-operative Program.


Harriet Friedmann

Professor Harriet Friedmann is Professor and Associate Chair of the Department of Sociology and Fellow of the Centre for International Studies at the University of Toronto. She lectures and publishes widely in U.S., European and Canadian journals on issues related to food and agriculture. Professor Friedmann’s research includes international regulation of food and agriculture, family and corporate enterprises in the agro-food sector of the world economy, patterns of international trade and farm structures, persistence and change in diets and cuisines, and agroecology. Professor Friedmann received her Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1977. Professor Friedmann is co-investigator in “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


Sanford Gaines

Professor Sanford E. Gaines is a professor at the University of Houston Law Center, where he teaches courses in environmental law and trade law and co-directs the Law Center’s Mexican Legal Studies Program in Mexico City. His recent scholarship concerns the relationships between trade and environment and the international environmental institutions in North America. He was a Fulbright Senior Scholar in Denmark in 2000 and from 1996 to 1999 was the part-time executive director of the North American Institute (NAMI), a voluntary civic organization with members in Canada, Mexico and the U.S. While on leave from the University of Houston from 1992 to 1994 Professor Gaines served as the Deputy Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Environment and Natural Resources in the Executive Office of the President, responsible for environmental issues and side agreements in the negotiation of NAFTA and the Uruguay Round agreements in GATT. In 1997–99, he was a member and chair of the National Advisory Committee to the Environmental Protection Agency Administrator as the U.S. Representative to the Commission for Environmental Cooperation. He is also a member of the United Nations Environment Programme Expert Group on International Environmental Agreements and Trade, and consults occasionally with such organizations as the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Environmental Defense and the World Conservation Union. Professor Gaines graduated magna cum laude from Harvard College in 1967 and cum laude from Harvard Law School in 1974. He also received an M.A. from Harvard in East Asian Regional Studies in 1974.


David Hathaway

David Hathaway is an economist and U.S. citizen who has lived in Brazil for 22 years. He has worked mainly with Brazilian non-governmental organizations (including IBASE, FASE, AS-PTA) in Rio de Janeiro since 1981, doing research and educational work on environmental issues such as pesticide use, biotechnology, biodiversity, genetic resources, community intellectual rights and intellectual property rights. Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, Mr. Hathaway has represented the Brazilian Forum of Non-governmental Organizations and Social Movements for the Environment and Development in promoting those issues in the National Congress, ministries and international negotiations such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Biosafety Protocol, as well as in international non-governmental initiatives (mostly through Grain and the Gaia Foundation) around the review of the agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property at the World Trade Organization. He has been living in Brasília since 1999.


Robert Howse

Professor Robert Howse teaches international law at the University of Michigan. His main research interests involve world trade law, multi-level governance and globalization, and legal and political philosophy. He is a member of the faculty of the World Trade Institute in Berne, Switzerland, and an International Fellow of the C.D. Howe Institute in Toronto. He has served as Visiting Professor at Harvard Law School, at the Academy of European Law of the European University Institute in Florence and at the University of Toronto. Professor Howse is co-author with Michael J. Trebilcock of The Regulation of International Trade (second edition, Routledge, 1999), the standard text on the subject; he is also author, co-author, translator or editor of six other books, and author or co-author of numerous articles in journals such as the European Journal of International Law, the Journal of World Trade and the International Review of Law and Economics. His most recent work is The Federal Vision: Governance and Legitimacy in the EU and the US, co-edited with Kalpyso Nicolaidis, to be published by Oxford University Press in 2001. In Canada’s 1992 constitutional referendum, Professor Howse was a co-founder of the Canada for All Canadians NO Committee and co-author, with Deborah Coyne, of the anti-Charlottetown accord manifesto titled No Deal! He has been a consultant or advisor to various governments and international organizations, including the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Professor Howse was educated at the University of Toronto and Harvard Law School.


Pierre Marc Johnson

The Honourable Pierre Marc Johnson is a lawyer, physician, former Premier of Quebec and former professor of law at McGill University. He has been Senior Counsel with the offices of Heenan Blaikie since 1996 and serves on numerous corporate boards as a director. He acts in commercial negotiations, international partnerships and foreign investment ventures related to new information technologies, entertainment, real estate and financial products. Vice-Chairman of the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy and Chair of its Foreign Policy Committee from 1990 to 1997, Dr. Johnson is an advisor to the Commission for Environmental Cooperation. He is author of many essays and a textbook on international trade law, The Environment and NAFTA: Understanding and Implementing the New Continental Law (Island Press, 1996). He has an honourary doctorate from Claude Bernard University in Lyon, France, and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and a Grand Officier de l’Ordre de la Pleiade.


Noel Keough

Mr. Noel Keough is co-founder and current coordinator of the Sustainable Calgary Society. Born in Newfoundland, he has lived in Calgary for almost 20 years. His academic background is in Engineering and Environmental Science. Mr. Keough has worked and taught in the area of sustainable community development for the past 15 years in Canada, Central America, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Asia.


John Kirton

Professor John Kirton is Associate Professor of Political Science, a Fellow of Trinity College, the Director of the G8 Research Group and Research Associate of the Centre for International Studies at the University of Toronto, where he leads a team of nine scholars and seven social partners on a project on “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project). He is the co-author with Alan Rugman and Julie Soloway of Environmental Regulations and Corporate Competitiveness: A NAFTA Perspective (Oxford University Press, 1999), Assessing the Environmental Effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Final Analytic Framework and Methodological Issues and Empirical Background (Commission for Environmental Cooperation, 1999), NAFTA’s Environmental Institutions: Performance and Potential (1997) and Building a Framework for Assessing NAFTA Effects (1996). Among his 14 books are Trade and Environment: Legal, Economic and Policy Perspectives(1998), The Halifax Summit, Sustainable Development, and International Institutional Reform (1995) and Trade, Environment and Competitiveness: Sustaining Canada’s Prosperity(1992, 1993). Professor Kirton is co-editor with Joseph Daniels and Andreas Freytag of Guiding Global Order: G8 Governance in the Twenty-First Century (Ashgate, in press), Shaping a New International Financial System: Challenges of Governance in a Globalizing World (Ashgate, 2000), The G8’s Role in the New Millennium (Ashgate, 1999), and The North Pacific Triangle: United States, Japan and Canada at Century’s End (University of Toronto Press, 1998). He has served as chair of the North American Environmental Standards Working Group, team leader of the Commission on Environmental Cooperation’s project on NAFTA’s environmental effects, a member of the Foreign Policy Committee of the Canadian Prime Minister’s National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, and a member of the Canadian Government’s International Trade Advisory Committee. Professor Kirton received his Ph.D. from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, his M.A. from Carleton University, and his B.A. from the University of Toronto, graduating with a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship.


Marc Levine

Professor Marc V. Levine is the founding director of the Center for Economic Development at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and a professor in the Department of History and Urban Studies Program. He also directs the university’s newly established Center for Canadian-American Policy Studies. Professor Levine is “professeur invité” at the Institut national de la recherché scientifique-Urbanisation, a Montreal-based urban research institute at the Université du Québec. His current research focuses on urban economic development strategies and on urban labour markets and wage polarization in the U.S. and Canada. Professor Levine is the author or co-author of four books, including La reconquête de Montréal (VLB Éditeur, 1997), and numerous articles in academic and popular journals. He is currently completing a book on tourism as an economic development strategy in Montreal and Baltimore.


Virginia Maclaren

Professor Virginia Maclaren is Associate Professor in the Department of Geography and Program in Planning at the University of Toronto. She has participated in a number of different indicator projects in Canada over the past five years. She is currently leading a University of Toronto team that is part of a tri-university consortium providing research support to Vital Signs, a community-based indicator project for Toronto. Professor Maclaren recently spoke in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and Chengdu, China, about Hamilton-Wentworth’s experience in governance around sustainability, Vital Sign’s indicators program and the development of the local agenda VISION 2020. Her research interests include waste management, sustainable urban development, environmental assessment and South East Asia. Professor Maclaren received her B.A. from Bishop’s University, her M.Pl. in Regional Planning from the University of Ottawa and her Ph.D. in Regional Science from Cornell University. Professor Maclaren is a co-investigator in “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


Howard Mann

Since establishing his legal and consulting practice in 1993, Howard Mann has specialized in international and Canadian law and policy for sustainable development. His practice focuses on international trade and environment issues. With clients from the public, private and non-governmental organization sectors in Canada and internationally, Dr. Mann has worked on a wide range of environment and development concerns, involving such international agreements as the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and World Trade Organization agreements, the Basel Convention on the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes, the Convention on Biological Diversity, international forest instruments and voluntary environmental standards. Specific assignments have involved the implementation of existing agreements, institutional management of the environment, international training seminars for business and government leaders, and the development of policy and strategic plans for new approaches to environmentally sustainable development. Prior to his private practice, Dr. Mann was Legal Counsel with the Government of Canada for five years. During this time he specialized in international and Canadian environmental law, and Canadian constitutional law as it relates to environmental issues. He represented Canada in the negotiation of several international environmental agreements and instruments, such as the 1992 United Nations Convention on Climate Change and the NAFTA related North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. Dr. Mann has served on a special Task Force on Trade and Environment established to advise Canada’s Minister for International Trade and is now an associate of the Trade and Sustainability program of the International Institute for Sustainable Development. He was also the founding chair of the International Environmental Law Committee of the Canadian Bar Association. Dr. Mann received his Bachelor of Civil Law from McGill University, and his Master of Laws and doctorate from the London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.


Konrad von Moltke

Professor Konrad von Moltke is a Senior Fellow at the International Institute for Sustainable Development. His recent work has focused on environmental policy and international economic relations: debt, trade, investment and development. Professor von Moltke has contributed to developing the agenda on trade and environment at global and regional levels. He is a Senior Fellow at World Wildlife Fund in Washington, D.C., Adjunct Professor of Environmental Studies and Senior Fellow of the Institute on International Environmental Governance at Dartmouth College and Visiting Professor of Environmental Studies at the Free University in Amsterdam. From 1989 to 1998, he edited International Environmental Affairs, a journal for research and policy. Between 1976 and 1984, he was founding Director of the Institute for European Environmental Policy (Bonn, Paris, London), a private institution devoted to the analysis of policy alternatives for European environmental problems. He has published extensively on medieval history, comparative education and curriculum development, and international environmental policy. Professor von Moltke studied mathematics at Dartmouth College and medieval history at the University of Munich and the University of Göttingen, where he received his Ph.D. in 1970.


Sylvia Ostry

Dr. Sylvia Ostry is Distinguished Research Fellow at the Centre for International Studies of the University of Toronto. After teaching and research at a number of Canadian universities and at the University of Oxford Institute of Statistics, she joined the Canadian government in 1964, where she served as Deputy Minister of International Trade, Ambassador for Multilateral Trade Negotiations and the Prime Minister’s Personal Representative for the Economic Summit, among other posts. From 1979 to 1983, she was Head of the Economics and Statistics Department of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in Paris. She has received the Outstanding Achievement Award of the Government of Canada and in 1990 was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. In 1991 she was admitted as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. Her most recent publications include Who’s on First? The Post-Cold War Trading System (University of Chicago Press, 1997); “Intellectual Property Protection in the World Trade Organization: Major Issues in the Millennium Round,” in Competitive Strategies for the Protection of Intellectual Property, Owen Lippert, editor (Fraser Institute, 1999); “The Future of the World Trade Organization” in Brookings Trade Forum 1999, Susan M. Collins and Robert Z. Lawrence, editors (Brookings Institution Press, 1999); “Convergence and Sovereignty: Policy Scope for Compromise?” in Coping with Globalization, Aseem Prakash and Jeffrey A. Hart, editors (Routledge, 2000); “Regional versus Multilateral Trade Strategies,” ISUMA: Canadian Journal of Policy Research (vol. 1, no. 1, University of Montreal Press, 2000); “Making Sense of It All: A Post-Mortem on the Meaning of Seattle,” in Seattle, the WTO, and the Future of the Multilateral Trading System, Roger B. Porter and Pierre Sauvé editors (Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, June 2000); “The Multilateral Trading System,” in Oxford Handbook of International Business, Preliminary Draft (Oxford University Press, forthcoming); “The Uruguay Round North-South Grand Bargain: Implications for Future Negotiations,” The Political Economy of International Trade Law (University of Minnesota, 2000); and “Regional Dominos and the WTO: Building Blocks or Boomerang?” in Building a Partnership, The Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement, Mordechai Kreinin, editor (Michigan State University Press, University of Calgary Press, 2000). Dr. Ostry has a Ph.D. in Economics from McGill University and Cambridge. She is a co-investigator in “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


Louis Pauly

Professor Louis W. Pauly teaches political science and is Director of the Centre for International Studies at the University of Toronto. The winner of a number of prestigious fellowships and research grants, he has published widely, including Democracy beyond the State? The European Dilemma and the Emerging Global Order, co-edited with Michael Greven (University of Toronto Press, 2000); The Myth of the Global Corporation, co-authored with Paul Doremus and others (Princeton University Press, 1998); Who Elected the Bankers? Surveillance and Control in the World Economy (Cornell University Press, 1997); Choosing to Co-operate: How States Avoid Loss, co-edited with Janice Gross Stein (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993); and Opening Financial Markets: Banking Politics on the Pacific Rim (Cornell University Press, 1988); as well as numerous articles scholarly journals. A graduate of Cornell University, the London School of Economics, New York University and Fordham University, Professor Pauly held management positions at the Royal Bank of Canada and served on the staff of the International Monetary Fund before returning to academic life. He is a co-investigator in “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


Sarah Richardson

Ms. Sarah Richardson is President of Maeander Enterprises Ltd., a Canadian company that undertakes research and analysis related to issues of trade and sustainable development. During the past year, this work has focused in large part on the question of how best to conduct integrated assessments of trade liberalization agreements and trade-related policies. Major clients include the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) International, the International Institute for Sustainable Development, OXFAM-UK and WWF-Europe. Prior to heading up Maeander Enterprises, Ms. Richardson was the Program Manager for NAFTA/Environment at the Commission for Environmental Cooperation where she was responsible for developing the framework to assess the environmental effects of NAFTA on the environment. She has also worked as Foreign Policy Advisor at the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), an advisory body on sustainable development to Canada’s prime minister. Ms. Richardson’s background is in law and policy and she holds an LL.M. in International Law from Columbia University, an LL.B. from Dalhousie, and a B.A. (Hons.) in International Relations from the University of Toronto.


Alan Rugman

Professor Alan M. Rugman is Thames Water Fellow in Strategic Management at Templeton College at the University of Oxford. From 1987 to 1998, he was Professor of International Business at the University of Toronto, before which he taught at Dalhousie University and the University of Winnipeg. He has also been a visiting professor at the Columbia Business School, the London Business School, Harvard University, University of California at Los Angeles, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Warwick Business School and the University of Paris-La Sorbonne. Professor Rugman served as advisor on international competitiveness to two Canadian prime ministers over the 1986–1993 period and was the only academic member of Canada’s business International Trade Advisory Committee from 1986 to 1988 while the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement was being negotiated. Subsequently he served on the sectoral trade advisory committee for forest products from 1989 to 1993, as NAFTA was negotiated. He has also been a consultant to international organizations such as the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, NAFTA’s Commission on Environmental Cooperation, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Commonwealth Secretariat. Professor Rugman has published more than 200 articles dealing with the economic, managerial and strategic aspects of multinational enterprises and with trade and investment policy in such journals as The American Economic Review, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of International Business Studies, California Management Review and The World Economy. Among his books are Environmental Regulations and Corporate Competitiveness: A NAFTA Perspective, co-authored with John Kirton and Julie Soloway (Oxford University Press, 1999); Trade and the Environment: Economic, Legal and Policy Perspectives, co-edited with John Kirton and Julie Soloway (Elgar, 1998); The Theory of Multinational Enterprises and Multinational Enterprises and Trade Policy (Elgar, 1996); Multinationals as Flagship Firms, co-written with Joseph D’Cruz (Oxford University Press, 2000); International Business (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2000); and The End of Globalization (Random House 2000). Professor Rugman has served as Vice-President of the Academy of International Business and was elected a Fellow of the Academy in 1991. He earned his B.A. in Economics from Leeds University in 1966, M.Sc. in Economic Development from London University’s School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) in 1967 and his Ph.D. in Economics from Simon Fraser University in 1974. Professor Rugman is a collaborator on “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


Grace Skogstad

Professor Grace Skogstad teaches in the Department of Political Science at the University of Toronto. Her current work examines the impact of the World Trade Organization on a country’s policy autonomy and its implications for democracy; she is also studying trade disputes arising from the World Trade Organization’s SPS Agreement and transatlantic divergence in the food safety and biotechnology regulatory frameworks of the European Union, Canada and the United States. Professor Skogstad’s publications include articles in Governance, Journal of Public Policy, Canadian Journal of Political Science, Canadian Public Policy, Canadian Public Administration, Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology and the Australian Journal of Political Science. Her books include The Politics of Canadian Agricultural Policy-making (University of Toronto Press, 1987); Agricultural Trade: Domestic Pressures and International Tensions, co-edited with Andrew Fenton Cooper (Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1990); and Policy Communities and Public Policy in Canada (Copp Clark Pitman, 1990). Professor Skogstad earned her B.A. and M.A. from the University of Alberta and her Ph.D. from the University of British Columbia.


Julie Soloway

Dr. Julie Soloway is an associate with Davies, Ward & Beck LLP, practising both international trade law and competition law. She was called to the Ontario Bar in 1995 and joined the firm in 2000. Prior to joining the firm, Dr. Soloway worked as an international trade consultant associated with the Centre for International Studies and subsequently with Charles River Associates. She has advised clients on a variety of matters pertaining to international trade and investment, international dispute settlement under the North American Free Trade Association/World Trade Organization and environmental regulation. Her clients included primarily Canadian, foreign and international agencies. Dr. Soloway has authored or co-authored numerous articles on the subject of international trade, investment and environmental regulation and has spoken at several conferences on these topics, and is co-author, with John Kirton and Alan Rugman, of Environmental Regulations and Corporate Strategy: A NAFTA Perspective (Oxford University Press, 1999). Dr. Soloway received her B.A. in Economics and LL.B. from the University of Western Ontario and her LL.M. (cum laude) in International, European and Comparative Law from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. She holds an S.J.D. (doctorate) in international trade law from the University of Toronto. Dr. Soloway is a collaborator on “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


James Stanford

Dr. James Stanford is an economist in the Research Department of the Canadian Auto Workers, Canada’s largest private-sector trade union. He was a Research Fellow in Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., in 1992–93 and has received numerous other academic fellowships and awards. Dr. Stanford’s research on a wide range of economic topics has been published by the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Cambridge University Press and New York University Press. He is the author of Paper Boom published in 1999 by the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives and James Lorimer and Company. He is regularly quoted in the print and electronic media, and writes a monthly column on economics for the National Post. Dr. Stanford earned a B.A. (Hons.) in Economics from the University of Calgary in 1984, an M.Phil. in Economics from Cambridge University in 1986, and a Ph.D. in Economics in 1995 from the New School for Social Research in New York, specializing in international trade, macroeconomics and the economic impact of labour and social institutions. The Canadian Auto Workers is a partner institution of the “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


Michelle Swenarchuk

Ms. Michelle Swenarchuk is Director of International Programmes of the Canadian Environmental Law Association and a senior practitioner of law in the fields of environmental protection, trade, Aboriginal rights, labour and administrative law. As Counsel to the Association, she has represented individuals and environmental groups on issues including forest management, environmental assessment, contaminated lands, land use and Aboriginal rights. Ms. Swenarchuk has also participated in law reform and consultations with governments regarding a broad range of environmental and legal issues. She has written and spoken widely on international environmental issues, including environmental impacts of trade, and participates in international fora and negotiations concerned with trade, investment, development and the environment. Ms. Swenarchuk is currently a member of advisory committees to the Canadian government concerning NAFTA Chapter 11 and the Biosafety Protocol.


Chris Tollefson

Professor Chris Tollefson is Associate Professor at the Faculty of Law of the University of Victoria. His recent publications include The Wealth of Forests: Markets, Regulation and Sustainable Forestry (University of British Columbia Press, 1998) and cleanair.ca: a citizen’s action guide (Sierra Legal Defence Fund, 2000). He is currently working on a manuscript funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada that considers the influence of eco-certification on forest policy in British Columbia. Professor Tollefson founded and is the Executive Director of the University of Victoria’s Environmental Law Centre, home of the only clinical program in public interest environmental law in Canada. He has served on the board of the Sierra Legal Defence Fund since 1993, and has been its chair since 1998. He is also a Fellow of Leadership for Environment and Development (LEAD). The Sierra Legal Defence Fund and LEAD are partner institutions of the “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


Michael Trebilcock

Professor Michael Trebilcock joined the Faculty of Law at the University of Toronto as Professor of Law in 1972. Previously, he taught at the University of Adelaide in South Australia until 1969 when he came to Canada as a Visiting Associate Professor of Law at McGill Law School; he was appointed Associate Professor of Law at McGill in 1970. He serves as Director of the Law and Economics Programme and Director of the Centre for the Study of State and Market. Professor Trebilcock has served as National Vice-President of the Consumers’ Association of Canada, Chair of the Consumer Research Council and Research Director of the Professional Organizations Committee for the Government of Ontario. He was a Fellow in Law and Economics at the University of Chicago Law School in 1976, a Visiting Professor of Law at Yale Law School in 1985 and a Global Law Professor at New York University Law School in 1997 and 1999. From 1982 to 1986 he was a member of the Research Council of the Canadian Institute of Advanced Research. He is an award-winning author of many books, including The Common Law of Restraint of Trade (Carswell, 1986) and The Limits of Freedom of Contract (University of Toronto, 1988). He is co-author of The Regulation of International Trade, with Robert Howse (Routledge, 1999); Exploring the Domain of Accident Law: Taking the Facts Seriously, with David Dewees and David Duff (Oxford University Press, 1996); and The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy, with Ninette Kelley (University of Toronto Press, 1998). In 1999, Professor Trebilcock was awarded the Canada Council Molson Prize in the Humanities and Social Sciences, and received an Honorary Doctorate in Laws from McGill University. He earned his LL.B. from the University of New Zealand in 1961, his LL.M. from the University of Adelaide in 1962, was called to the Bar of New Zealand in 1964 and the Bar of Ontario in 1975. Professor Trebilcock is co-investigator in “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


Scott Vaughan

Mr. Scott Vaughan is Head of Environment, Economy and Trade Program of the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. Before joining the Commission in 1998, he worked for the World Trade Organization on trade and environment issues, and with United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Nairobi as policy advisor to the Executive Director, in New York as liaison coordinator for the preparatory process for the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, and in Geneva as head of UNEP’s work on trade and finance (including its work with commercial banks and the insurance sector). Mr. Vaughan was also Senior Policy Advisor to the former Minister of the Environment, Charles Caccia, and analyst with the head office of the Royal Bank of Canada. The Commission for Environmental Cooperation is a partner institution of the “Strengthening Canada’s Environmental Community through International Regime Reform” (the EnviReform project) at the University of Toronto.


Peter Warrian

Mr. Peter Warrian is Senior Research Fellow at the Munk Centre for International Studies at the University of Toronto. He is also Adjunct Professor of Political Science and Industrial Relations. For more than 25 years, he has worked as a consultant in labour-management relations in the public and private sectors, including economic sector and human resource studies, work reorganization, labour adjustment, arbitration and joint problem solving. From 1992 to 1994 he was Assistant Deputy Minister of Finance and Chief Economist for the Province of Ontario. He also served as the Commissioner of the Public Sector Labour Market and Productivity Commission. Prior to joining the government, Mr. Warrian was Executive Director of the Canadian Steel Trade and Employment Congress. From 1974 to 1983 he was on the staff of the United Steelworkers of America, where he served as Legislative Director and later as Research Director. From 1983 to 1985, he was Executive Assistant to the President of the Ontario Public Service Employees Union. Mr. Warrian is a member of the editorial board of the Public Sector Productivity and Management Review and the Working Group on Public Sector Productivity of the International Institute of Administrative Science (IIAS). He is the author of Hard Bargain: Transforming Public Sector Labour-Management Relations (University of Toronto Press, 1996). Mr. Warrian is a graduate of the University of Waterloo and the Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


David Welch

Professor David Welch is currently Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Toronto. He is the author of the award-winning Justice and the Genesis of War (Cambridge University Press, 1993) and co-author of On the Brink: Americans and Soviets Reexamine the Cuban Missile Crisis, with James Blight (2nd edition, Noonday, 1990) and Cuba on the Brink: Castro, the Missile Crisis and the Soviet Collapse, with James Blight and Bruce Allyn (Pantheon, 1993); he is co-editor with James Blight of Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis (Frank Cass, 1998). Professor Welch’s articles have appeared in Ethics and International Affairs, Foreign Affairs, the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Intelligence and National Security, International Security, International Journal, International Studies Quarterly, the Journal of Conflict Resolution, the Mershon International Studies Review and Security Studies. He is currently a Visiting Fellow at the Center of International Studies at Princeton University. Professor Welch received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1990.


Rodney White

Rodney White is currently the Director of the Institute for Environmental Studies and a professor with the Department of Geography at the University of Toronto. His recent research interest is “Building the Ecological City,” a project focused on four concerns: coastal cities and climate change, the management of contaminated urban lands, management of urban runoff and wastewater, and energy and water conservation in buildings. His publications include “Population and the Environmental Crisis” in Population Problems: Topical Issues, J. Rose, editor (Gordon and Breach, 2000); “Sustainable Development in Urban Areas: An Overview,” in Sustainable Assessment at the Local Level, D. Devuyst, editor (Columbia University Press, in press; and “Environment and Development,” in World Science Report, A. Kazancigil and D. Mackinson, editors (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1999). Professor White received his B.A. in Geography from Oxford, his M.Sc. in Geography from Pennsylvania State University and his Ph.D. in Geography from Bristol University.


Serena Wilson

Ms. Serena Wilson, an attorney, coordinated environment and trade policy at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and served as the U.S. NAFTA Coordinator for the EPA. In 1993, she was a member of the U.S. delegation that negotiated the NAFTA environmental side agreement. She later negotiated the original Article 14-15 guidelines and led the U.S. delegation during the guideline revisions. Ms. Wilson is currently a consultant and was nominated to NAFTA Joint Public Advisory Committee in April 2000.